We cannot stop noticing: no sequence too absurd, trivial, meaningless, insulting, we helplessly register, provide sense, squeeze meaning, and read intention out of the most atomized of words.
– Kenneth Goldsmith, Uncreative Writing (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011), p. 221.
It is clear that any attempt to define the act of reading in a universal sense is misguided. What counts as an act of reading varies from place to place and time to time, according to the social and institutional circumstances of the reader. Any boundary that the researcher sets around the act of reading also has to be seen as porous, and in such a way that permits other participants to enter the act. In other words, individual instances of reading are always embedded in historically and spatially located cultures of print. And once we recognize that understanding the act of reading must take account of those social and institutional circumstances in which reading takes place, we can imagine readers as embedded in reading communities. That leap of the imagination in turn frees us to exercise our ingenuity in uncovering the multitude of details – those ‘distinctive traits’ of reading practices, and ‘the specific mechanisms that distinguish the various communities of readers and traditions of reading.’
– Christine Pawley, ‘Seeking “Significance”: Actual Readers, Specific Reading Communities’, Book History, 5 (2002), 143-160 (p. 157).